a cat sitting in a suitcase

Baggage delayed? Free stuff! – Montreal Convention

Baggage delays happen, but airlines are pretty darn good at getting your bag to you in a timely fashion. Often credit card insurance will provide some sort of compensation, but did you know there’s a legal mechanism to seek reimbursement for damages in the event of delayed baggage, however short that delay is? Let’s take a look at the law…

The Montreal Convention applies to baggage transported between two member countries (most countries are party to the Montreal Convention). Regarding baggage, Article 22 s.2 states:

In the carriage of baggage, the liability of the carrier in the case of destruction, loss, damage or delay is limited to 1,000 Special Drawing Rights for each passenger unless the passenger has made, at the time when the checked baggage was handed over to the carrier, a special declaration of interest in delivery at destination and has paid a supplementary sum if the case so requires. In that case the carrier will be liable to pay a sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless it proves that the sum is greater than the passenger’s actual interest in delivery at destination.

First, you’re probably asking yourself – what the heck is a Special Drawing Right? Essentially, it’s a made-up currency (“SDR”), and as of today’s date, 1000 SDR is worth 1847.82 CAD. This provision means that the carrier’s maximum liability in the event of loss or delay of baggage is the equivalent of 1000 SDR in the local currency, unless the value of the baggage is declared prior to travel. Note that Air Canada’s website and international tariff refers to the maximum as 1,131 SDR, and so does Wikipedia. The text of the Montreal Convention does not reflect this. I don’t know why the numbers are different. If anyone knows why, please leave a comment and I’ll update the post accordingly. Reader ‘Nankin’ commented with a statement by the DOT that reflects updated SDR values in 2009.

The Montreal Convention is a reimbursement scheme, not a compensatory scheme. If your baggage is delayed, and as a result of that delay you experienced damages, the Montreal Convention mandates that the carrier reimburse you for your damages. Now, how do you get damages? Well, say you bring baggage with a suit. That baggage is delayed by six hours. Four hours after you land, you have a very important business meeting, where a suit is required. Because the carrier delayed your baggage, and as a result of that delay you were without something that you required, and you purchased that thing as a result which you wouldn’t have otherwise purchased if your baggage wasn’t delayed, you have damages. In our example, but for the delay of your baggage, you would have had the required suit for the meeting, but now you don’t, so you have to purchase a suit, the carrier is liable to reimburse you for that damage pursuant to the  Montreal Convention with a maximum value of 1,131 SDR.

Let’s put this in simple terms – if there was something in your baggage that you needed during the course of the delay, and you purchase those items to compensate for the delay, the airline must reimburse for your purchases up to a maximum of 1,131 SDR. The key points are that you have to have purchased the items (it’s not a compensation scheme), and you have to have a reason to require what was in your delayed baggage. If you weren’t planning on wearing the suit until day three, and your baggage arrives only six hours late, you’re not eligible for reimbursement for a suit (but may be eligible for those things that you needed for those six hours – maybe you like to change clothing four times a day, so you needed to buy a new set of clothes for that six hours).

Except for the 1,131 SDR limit, there doesn’t seem to be a requirement to spend the same value of the delayed item. This makes sense – if you bought a $600 suit in Bangkok, and you land in London, there isn’t a reasonable expectation that you find a suit in London for $600. The expectation is that you are able to reasonably compensate for your requirements. If the meeting in London was with hoity-toity people, then it’s reasonable to buy a reasonably hoity-toity suit. That is, the replacement item does not need to be of the same value as the item delayed, but only needs to satisfy the reason that you need it. If you require a fine cotton t-shirt, which you can maybe buy at home for $50, but you can only find a Burberry cotton shirt costing $300 to satisfy that need, so be it.

We all know having a right and engaging that right are two separate things. Airlines aren’t a fan of this rule, and will almost always dismiss your request for reimbursement. Some airlines will give you a small amount of cash at the airport. Note that this cash does not waive your rights to reimbursement, but can be applied against that 1,131 SDR total. When your baggage is delayed, immediately make a claim at the airport. Make sure you receive appropriate documentation of the delay. The moment you have that form, you can start incurring damages (buying stuff) until you get your baggage in your possession. Many airlines will try to claim that you aren’t due compensation if you are returning to your home airport. This is not true. So long as you flew between two Montreal Convention countries, the rules still apply. Now, a big rule of law is that you are expected to do your best to limit your damages. So if you can grab another suit from home, you’ll have a hard time arguing you needed a new suit for that meeting. But if your only suit was in that baggage, you should be eligible for reimbursement.

Some items are not eligible under the rules. These are usually jewelry, electronics, documents, etc. The rule applies to cover things like clothing, hygienic supplies, cosmetics, etc.

When making a claim with a carrier, do so as quickly as possible. You usually need to make the claim within 14 – 21 days. Keep all original receipts. Make photocopies if you can. Write a letter explaining why you needed every item you’re claiming. For example, if you bought the suit, you could state: “I had a pre-planned meeting at 6PM on December 4, 2016. My delayed baggage did not arrive until 9PM. This meeting was a business meeting, and in my business, I required a suit. I bought a suit for $1200 as shown on the receipt. This suit was appropriate for the meeting.” If you can, providing an affidavit could be helpful. FAX or MAIL all documents to the carrier. Every carrier has their own communication rules. Make reference to the fact that you’re engaging your rights pursuant to the Montreal Convention. Hopefully they won’t give you too much of a hassle, but if they do, you may need to make a complaint to the relevant regulator (in Canada, complaints can be submitted to the CTA, and in the US, to the DOT).

It’s important to note that different rules apply if you are travelling on a domestic itinerary in Canada. I will cover those rules in a different post. Note that there are more rules and exceptions, but this article provides a very good overview and will be generally applicable in most instances. More information about Air Canada’s rules can be found in their International TariffAs always, this is not legal advice, and I am not a lawyer. Always consult with a legal professional.


  1. Exactly which section(s) of the Montreal Convention cover compensation for delayed baggage? I’ve been unable to find anything specific. Airberlin has refused to reimburse me even a cent for delaying my bags 30 hours flying between AUH and TXL. Airberlin claims that the toiletries I purchased “. . . are consumer goods considered as everyday commodities. Due to the delayed delivery of your baggage you had to purchase these everyday commodities earlier than expected. As the purchase of toiletries is necessary once your supplies are used up additional costs will not result.” I’d like to pursue them – vigorously.

  2. Hi there, I am battling with Air Canada over my lost luggage and reimbursement of interim expenses. Whereas AC lost my luggage, they are saying:, “As is the practice in the airline industry and your last flight was operated by China Eastern Airlines, your Delayed Baggage Report was opened with this carrier and the recovery of your baggage was handled by this carrier. Therefore, your claim for interim expenses must be made with China Eastern Airlines, regardless which of the airlines in the itinerary is at fault. As per the airlines agreement, all baggage claims are handled by the last carrier.” My bags never made it to Beijing and thus China Eastern never touched my bags. My bags were rerouted with a different airline, in order to get them to me. Is AC right, that they are absolved of any wrongdoing because even though they were the ones to cause this issue, they weren’t the last to handle them? PLEASE HELP!!!

    1. The last airline story is only applicable if the final carrier is a member of IATA. if they are not a member then its goes to the previous carrier.

  3. My suitcase was lost by Turkish Airlines in Istanbul for 77 days in my way to a 6 day work related trip with flight originating in Denmark . They told me that I could claim for lost luggage, but if i did they would stop searching. After 10 weeks I had lost hope and provided them with a list of what was in the case and the cost of the items that I could remember. In the meantime I had replaced a few of the clothes and toiletries as I needed to continue working. I replaced a suit, a couple of dresses and blouses, a jacket and one pair of shoes to tide me over. Suddenly they found my suitcase and returned it after 77 days. They then asked me to send receipts for the items I had purchased, this I did and the response from their claims department came back the next day saying they will pay a maximum of $300. They will only pay for up to a max of 6 days delay at $50 per day. So if your case is lost for 6 days or 77 days, you are only entitled to $300. I had to replace at least a few work outfits to be able to continue working and look professional. Turkish Airlines don’t care that they lost my case for 77 days, or that they told me the it was lost. They are starting that they will only pay for emergency items- a bit ridiculous for 77 days. How can I find out if $300 is really the max I am entitled to and I should just accept it – or is it worth fighting to take it further. Many thanks

  4. What if a considerable financial loss has occurred due to the delayed luggage? Example: a life saving cancer treatment medicine has been purchased abroad and is packaged with dry ice capable of holding on for up to 30 hours. The airline misplaces the luggage and takes over 50 hours to finally deliver the luggage. The medicine is no longer good and is a throwaway. It cost around $6000 ($4700 for the medicine itself + the trip from USA to Europe and back.) What are the possibilities in this case?

    Thank you.

    1. Absolutely NOT legal advice: I’d say there’s a clear financial cap the Montreal Convention, and I don’t recall an exception clause. The only exception I could imagine is if you pay the Extra Value Declaration (or whatever the airline calls it) surcharge as appropriate.

  5. Thanks to your most helpful tips on delayed baggage & compensation under the Montreal Convention, I was able to realize full compensation from Ukraine International Air after a 6-day delay of my suitcase (for an 11-day trip). I filed with lost & found before leaving Ben Gurion airport upon arrival, kept all my purchase receipts, and notified the carrier upon arriving home.
    Your most valuable advice is providing a rationale for purchases. I simply told the truth – I was there as a religious pilgrim to the holiest sites of my faith and was forced to wear the same casual clothes I’d worn on the long flights from California to Israel. I also cited the Montreal Convention. Finally, I was professional and courteous in my language, always the best approach. I also received compensation for my damaged suitcase.
    Thank you very much!

  6. The “Free Stuff” made me click to read the post. The “Montreal Convention” made me think that it would not apply, since I do not go to Montreal, and I have no plans to go to a convention.

    I was glad I did click and read the post.

  7. AMERICAN AIRLINES had my 2 bags for 6 days, and would not deliver them to me. I flew from Chicago to Paris on a non-stop evening flight on Wed., Aug. 2, and arrived on Thurs., Aug. 3, and I needed to be in Burgundy for a wedding on Sat., Aug. 5. I had a carry-on, which the gate agent made me check, and a larger bag to check. After arrival at CDG, I went immediately to Baggage Service and filled out a report. The agent said I would have my bags the next day, Fri., Aug. 4. I told the lady that I needed both bags for the wedding on Saturday. She said there wouldn’t be a problem, and I’d have them before 1:00p on Friday. Friday morning I called to check on the delivery of the bags, and was told they would be in Burgundy for delivery on Saturday. I told her I needed my dress, shoes, purse, cosmetics, underwear, etc. for the wedding on Saturday. She assured me my 2 bags would be there by 1:00p for the 5:00p wedding. I called to check on the status on Saturday morning, and was told the bags were now in Dijon, and would be delivered on Monday!!!! (Monday we were leaving Burgundy at 1:30p to be driven to the train station in Le Cruesot 30 min. away to go back to Paris.) I asked for the phone number of the delivery service, and she said they close at noon on Saturday and stalled in giving me their number. When she finally gave it to me at 12:02p, I hung up with her and called them. Guess what? Nobody answered. There was nothing I could do but wait 2 more days for my 2 bags. They were delivered at 1:05p on Monday, Aug. 7, 25 min. before our departure. HERE’S THE PROBLEM: there was nowhere to purchase anything to wear for the wedding because we were in the French countryside with only white cows and rolls of hay everywhere – no stores, no businesses anywhere for miles. Plus, I had been promised day after day that I would have my clothing, so there was no need to go shopping. PLEASE let me know if I am entitled to any sort of compensation for this incident. I now know what “pain and suffering” awards from juries means. I was absolutely sick over this. Thank you so much for your quick response. I don’t want to run out of time to report this to the proper authorities.

    1. The Montreal Convention is a reimbursement mechanism. If you did not suffer actual loss (e.g. Buying stuff during the delay), you have no entitlements. You would only seek customer service gestures from AA (unlikely).

    2. Did you end up getting anywhere with this? I am in a similar situation and am fuming at days lost being on the phone getting screwed around.

      1. Hi, Bobby – NOTE: They will jerk you around as long as you’ll allow them to do so. Take action, and don’t let them wear you down!!!
        Here’s what I’m going to do: I’m going to send AA ALL my receipts, from airfare to meals to souvenirs to Advil purchase – everything. I’m going to tell them I expect to be compensated for their ineptitude and wrongdoing and causing me mental anguish and pain and suffering, or I’ll see them in Small Claims Court. They DO NOT want to go there!!

        Try this customer (dis)service no.: 800-535-5225. You will eventually be able to get to a live person, and they’ll tell you to go to their website.
        I have gone online to AA’s website, “Contact Us,” and filled out the Baggage Claim form, but it really doesn’t pertain to my situation. I sent it in anyway. I’ve used 2 e-mail addresses:
        AACustomerRelations@aa.com (never heard from anyone from there), and central.baggage@aa.com. I did hear from them both times I submitted a form, but it was just a pat on the head saying:

        “Thank you for contacting American Airlines. This is an automated acknowledgment, giving us a chance to share with you right away what is happening with your message. First, while this email is not intended as a response to the remarks you just submitted, it does confirm we have received your email.

        Please rest assured that we are also committed to resolving every email and claim we receive, and a specialist from our department will get back to you as soon as possible. The Central Baggage team is eager to resolve issues that arise in the hope of seeing you flying American Airlines again and again.

        To ensure efficient handling of your claim, supporting documents should be attached to your email, and not exceed 10 MB in size per attachment. Emails in which the supporting documents are embedded or exceed size limitation will be blocked from our system. Due to security measures, we are unable to access documents in which a link is provided to a cloud based service.

        If you are inquiring about a personal item that you left on one of our aircraft or at the airport, in the event that your item is located, we will respond back to you to make arrangements for its return. We regret that we will be unable to provide status updates on such items.

        If you are inquiring about a refund or refund status related to a bag fee, your request will be forwarded to our Refunds Department to ensure proper handling.

        If your question or comment is about an upcoming trip, an unused ticket or your AAdvantage account, please call our Reservations Department at 1-800-433-7300.

        Thank you for your patience. We appreciate your business.

        American Airlines Central Baggage Resolution Team

        ***This is an automated message. Replies to this message are not viewed or monitored.*** “

    3. It’s the same excuse as “the check is in the mail.”

      Until you have the luggage delivered, it’s all just empty promises.
      I would’ve played it safe and gone shopping on Friday, despite the promises. The Montreal Convention doesn’t talk about that the reimbursement is only due when the airline admits it can’t deliver it before a certain time, it simply states that while it is still under the status “delay/lost” that you can incur reasonable charges to replace essential items which the airline must refund. Nothing more, nothing less.

  8. Hi There! I need help. I’m hoping there’s more American Airlines can do for me. On July 31st, I flew out to Colombia, Bogota with LATAM airlines. The following morning, August 1, I flew out to Miami Florida, as a connecting flight, also with LATAM and arrived in Miami. Then I flew out to Boston, MA, my final destination. My last flight was with American Airlines. In an nutshell, I was told LATAM was not liable and to take it up with American. I filed a claim as soon as I landed in Boston ( since my bag was supposed to land in Miami to go through American security but it never did). It’s been 38 days since my bag was lost. 5 days after it was ‘delayed’ I submitted the questionnaire that outlined the contents in my bag (very detailed) and outlined the delayed expenses I had as a result. I provided receipts for everything (over 65 receipts attached in the email). For delayed expenses, I had spent around 800. For lost baggage if it came to that, I would need $3,600 UD. I’ve been calling and in contact with a Joe from AA. I thought I would at least get $3,500 if my bag was deemed lost. Joe also agreed that this was the amount and we remained in contact. Yesterday, a different personnel called me and said Joe was out of the office so she would check in with me. She said that my bag was deemed lost and unfortunately, $3,500 is the amount of redemption for domestic flights according to the Montreal Convention. But, since my flight was international (coming from Peru), I would only get the maximum amount of $1,131 SDR which is equivalent to $1604.03. They said they couldn’t do anything for me and had the nerve to say that this was an irregularity and that I should not be reluctant to buy tickets from AA going forward. Now, I know it’s a low chance for me to get the amount of money I need to cover the content in my bag. But maybe I can at least get a roundtrip ticket to Peru to visit family again (and re purchase some of the things I was bringing with me). I don’t know how to go about doing this or who to contact. Please help.

    1. As long as ticket was scheduled between two Montreal Convention states, the entire itinerary is subject to the liability requirements of the Montreal Convention. Per IATA resolution, the final carrier on your ticket is liable for any loss or delay of your luggage, regardless as to fault. To me, it would appear that AA is liable. I would email an executive contact, or if that fails, file a complaint with the DOT. If that fails, your only recourse may be litigation.

    2. And to elaborate, it’s correct that the carrier’s liability is subject to the Montreal Convention maximums. AA would not be liable for any excess value beyond the Convention’s liability limits – that is your loss sadly.

  9. I left to go for a family reunion in the U.K. on July 22nd, 2017. On my way to England I was stopping in Edinburgh for a 4 day sightseeing trip. I flew with Air Canada to Dublin, then Aer Lingus to Edinburgh. My luggage did not make it to Dublin from Toronto. I went without it to Edinburgh. I filled out a claim for delayed baggage in Dublin as soon as I found out it was not there. I was also told that my bag would be delivered the next morning. When I called the next day I was told to wait in for my bag, as I was staying at an Airbnb and it would be delivered to this address. I waited in and nothing came. I called again and was told the next day I would receive my luggage. I was told again the next day to wait for it. It again never came. It did not come at all until I was to leave Edinburgh. I waited in for 4 days as instructed, for my bag and did not see Edinburgh. The day I was leaving I was told it was found and that it was going to be delivered. I missed my bus to Newcastle, it was paid for, and waited for my bag. I waited for a few hours and called again as I had to leave my Airbnb. They did not know when it was to be delivered. I was instructed to take a cab to Edinburgh airport and pick it up myself.
    Through all of this the expenses I incurred were horrendous. My cell phone bill is $1400. as the call centre in India was who I was dealing with. I have taxi cab bills and a train ticket which I paid for extra as I missed my bus to Newcastle. When I did pick up my luggage I saw that the zipper had been broken into. I lost cash in a money belt, jewelry, and my brand new IPad. All of this and my vacation in Edinburgh was totally ruined. I saw nothing of this beautiful city. I was instructed to wait in every day. The only time I left was to buy a nightgown and toiletries and a few articles of clothing as I had nothing with me.
    I am out a lot of money. I made a claim with the Edinburgh police about my stolen items and the claim is also with the baggage area in Edinburgh.
    What am I entitled to in this case. I am out a lot of money and my cell phone bill has late charges on it as a result of it. I sent in all the paperwork with the phone numbers belonging to Air Canada baggage people and also with supervisors I dealt with. What am I to expect?

    1. Your liability is limited to the Montreal Convention limits. The carrier is not liable for anything beyond that. Further, specific items, such as jewellery, is excluded from the carrier’s liability.

  10. I need my baggage at all means, this is almost 7days i landed in Heathrow airport and am just a visitor not residing here in UK. I have made several calls yet i keep hearing the same reply that my baggage is located in Paris . I have perishable ,clothes, documents and other things like my hand bag which my jewelries is in it. I fly from Nigeria since 27th to land on 28th . Please i a positive answer and delivery because i have a limited time to spend here UK.

  11. Are there two distinct claims, one for the contents of the lost luggage and one for the replacement clothes bought and one can collect 1,131 SDR limit for each claim or is the total for both claims 1,131 SDR limit

  12. Hi,
    We flew from norway to Nice (france) to go golfing for 4 days with 4 pieces of luggage. 2 pieces came 33 hours after we landed, an 2 pieces (with all the golf-equipment) came 70+ hours after we landed. The whole trip was made to play golf, but without golf equipment that was impossible. We cancelled golfing friday and saturday, but decided that the trip would be in vain if we didn’t play sun/monday. We decided to buy the necessary clothing items (like shoes, pants, golf balls, golf glove, polo shirt) and rent the other stuff (clubs). We haven’t sent in the claim yet, but my gut feeling tells me that they will put up a fight. Do you have any good advice for what/how to file the claim? Thanks in advance!

  13. Hello,
    If i lost my receipts for the suit i bought because of delayed baggage. Can i still file the claim? Air Canada lost my luggage for the entire weekend. I never received my bag until a week later. The problem is i cant find the receipts for the purchases.

  14. My baggage was delayed by one day while i flew internationally with Lufthansa from Europe to Canada. All my clothing, winter jackets and sanitary products were in my bag. I had a birthday party and a meeting to attend too. Plus, it was sub-zero temperatures outside so i spent 500$ on clothing, a jacket and a few sanitary products. It was only 1 day however i had nothing with me as my bag was delayed. Am i entitled to compensation under the Montreal convention for the money that i spent?

  15. I was on a flight with Norwegian Airlines who in their policy says they follow the Montreal Convention. However, they are saying they can only cover 50% of my clothes expenses. And they won’t cover my cell phone. Is this right?

  16. Where does it state the actual “reimbursement scheme” in the Montreal Convention? The carrier states “reasonable documented damages for delay.” But I can’t find this notation/calculation in the Montreal Convention, but everyone says this is how it is done for delayed luggage. Save receipts and justify reasonable and necessary for reimbursement for things delayed in your bags that you needed.

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